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In this module you’ll study two related areas. Firstly, the modules covers the architectures of computer operating systems, including how they deal with resource allocation, management and security, in both single processor systems and multiple distributed processor systems (networks). Secondly, the module covers language processing, a key operation in modern computer systems. You’ll explore the structure of computer languages and the tools and techniques to automatically analyse them.

One of the key determinants of a computer system’s success is whether or not humans are able and willing to use it. This module aims to provide you with the skills necessary for designing, prototyping and evaluating usable user interfaces. The module explores the subjects of interaction design, information systems, user experience, social media and how computer-based products fit into organisations, societies and culture. As a part of the work on this module you’re expected to develop user requirements for an interactive device, then write up your user testing results, reflecting on what you have learnt from the module.

The module has been designed to build on your previous studies of web programming to explore server-side web development. You’ll be supported in developing the knowledge and skills necessary to build object-oriented, database driven web applications. You’ll be required to produce a portfolio of small examples that demonstrate your understanding of fundamental web development concepts and develop a complete web application that integrates the skills and knowledge you’ve gained during the course of the module.

This module covers the mathematical foundations required for scientific computing. You’ll be introduced to fundamental concepts in algebra and be supported in developing an understanding of both analytical and numerical methods for solving equations in one variable. You'll also be introduced to error analysis and proof.

This module allows you to explore the programming language that underpins major operating systems, applications, the Internet and the World Wide Web. Throughout this module you’ll be supported in expanding on the procedural and object based coding skills that you have developed so far. You’ll be supported be given an introduction to 'C' programming leading into C++ programming with a push toward Objective-C. You’ll then be supported in building a client-server system where the client could be a smartphone, tablet or a desktop PC. If you’re keen to challenge yourself you will also have the opportunity to explore mixed language programming. Integrating components written in in C/C++ with Java, Objective-C and C#. Techniques for accessing Object Request Brokers and databases will be covered and the concept of Design Patterns will be introduced.

Year 3 – optional placement year

This course offers an optional one-year work placement after Year 2.

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This module is aimed at providing you with an in-depth understanding of the role of a software engineer. You will explore how to deliver large-scale software development projects to time, budget and specification. This module has been designed to give you the opportunity to develop your abilities and acquire new techniques in problem solving and project management. You’ll have the opportunity to complete team-based tutorial exercises, where you will be presented with a scenario that could potentially take your project off track. This process aims to give you the skills in prioritising and reacting quickly to new developments in order to ensure that you can complete projects on time; especially vital when you are working in this fast-paced industry.

This module provides a detailed analysis of a range of techniques for the development of distributed and client-server systems architectures. It includes socket programming, remote method invocation, CORBA (Common Object Request Broker: Architecture and Specifications), web services, and Tuple-Space based architectures. The module also examines some typical distributed systems, including distributed file systems, distributed databases, and other common architectures.

This module is driven by you. You are asked to select a problem to solve which is relevant to your degree, and of appropriate scope and depth to be tackled within a timeframe of 30 weeks. Carrying out the project enables you to develop and demonstrate your ability to undertake research, manage time, use your initiative, learn independently, discuss and write convincingly on a subject requiring independent learning. A supervisor will support you throughout your project. You’ll use your existing knowledge and be encouraged to acquire additional skills as you carry out your project. The aim of the project is to suggest a solution to an identified problem. Your final report should describe the aims, scope and motivation of the project, the research you have undertaken, and the technical solution provided, including justification for design and development decisions.

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Polylines are continuous piecewise linear curves. Polylines are of particular interest, as they can be used to approximate more complex curves in the plane. At the same time they are easier to handle in comparison to higher-degree algebraic curves, as rational arithmetic is sufficient to carry out computations on polylines, and to construct arrangements of polylines in an exact and robust manner.

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class template handles polylines. It models the concepts Shrunken MockNeck Cashmere Sweater Vince Store Sale Online nMKrlSQ
, and ArrangementDirectionalXMonotoneTraits_2 . The type that substitutes the template parameter SubcurveTraits_2 when Arr_polyline_traits_2 <SubcurveTraits_2> is instantiated must be a geometry-traits class that models the following concepts:

We refer to the type that substitutes the template parameter SubcurveTraits_2 as the subcurve traits hereafter. If, in addition, the subcurve traits also models the concept ArrangementApproximateTraits_2 then the instantiated Arr_polyline_traits_2 <SubcurveTraits> type models the concept ArrangementApproximateTraits_2 as well. (By definition, modeling the concepts ArrangementApproximateTraits_2 and Multiprint dress AALTO Cheap Discount Cheap Sale Comfortable HOlYU5
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concept as well. Modeling the ArrangementConstructXMonotoneCurveTraits_2 concept implies that the subcurve traits must support the construction of a unique ( x -monotone) segment given two input points. Roughly speaking, it means that each operation defined by the subcurve traits must handle linear curves.

An instance of the polyline traits class-template inherits its nested point type, i.e., Discount Lowest Price Free Shipping Exclusive stripey long sleeve jumper The Elder Statesman Official For Sale Fake Cheap Price b1xEe0l
, from the subcurve traits, and defines the nested types Curve_2 and X_monotone_curve_2 , which are used to represent polylines and x -monotone polylines, respectively. A polyline of the nested type Curve_2 is stored as a vector of SubcurveTraits_2::Curve_2 objects, and an x -monotone polyline of the nested type X_monotone_curve_2 is stored as a vector of SubcurveTraits_2::X_monotone_curve_2 objects. The nested X_monotone_curve_2 type inherits from the nested type Curve_2 . By default, Arr_segment_traits_2 is used as the subcurve traits (in case where the SubcurveTraits_2 parameter is omitted). In this case the nested types SubcurveTraits_2::Curve_2 and SubcurveTraits_2::X_monotone_curve_2 are identical types representing line segments.

The Constitution enumerates a great many powers of Congress, ranging from seemingly major powers, such as the powers to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, to seemingly more minor powers, such as the power to establish post offices and post roads. But there are many powers that most people, today or in 1788 (when the Constitution was ratified), would expect Congress to exercise that are not part of those enumerations. The Constitution assumes that there will be federal departments, offices, and officers, but no clause expressly gives Congress power to create them. Congress is given specific power to punish counterfeiting and piracy, but there is no explicit general authorization to provide criminal—or civil – penalties for violating federal law. Several constitutional provisions give Congress substantial authority over the nation’s finances, but no clause discusses a national bank or federal corporations.

These unspecified but undoubted congressional powers, and many others, emerge from the Clause at the end of Article I, Section 8, which gives Congress power “[t]o make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution” the other federal powers granted by the Constitution. This residual clause—called at various times the “Elastic Clause,” the “Sweeping Clause,” and (from the twentieth century onward) the “Necessary and Proper Clause”—is the constitutional source of the vast majority of federal laws. Virtually all of the laws establishing the machinery of government, as well as substantive laws ranging from antidiscrimination laws to labor laws, are enacted under the authority of the Necessary and Proper Clause. This Clause just might be the single most important provision in the Constitution.

At first glance (and keep in mind that first glances are not always last glances), close analysis of the words of the Necessary and Proper Clause suggests three criteria for a federal law to be within its scope: Laws enacted pursuant to the Clause must be (1) necessary, (2) proper, and (3) for carrying into execution some other federal power.

Historically, most of the controversy surrounding the meaning of the Necessary and Proper Clause has centered on the word “necessary.” In the 1790s during the Washington administration, and again two decades later in the Supreme Court, attempts to create a national bank in order to aid the nation’s finances generated three competing understandings of what kind of connection with another federal power makes a law “necessary” for implementing that power. Those understandings ranged from a strictly essential connection “without which the [implemented] grant of power would be nugatory” (Thomas Jefferson), to an intermediate requirement of “some obvious and precise affinity” between the implemented power and the implementing law (James Madison), to a very loose requirement allowing any law that “might be conceived to be conducive” to executing the implemented power (Alexander Hamilton). In PANTS Bermudas su YOOXCOM Vivetta Buy Cheap Really Purchase Cheap Online Discount How Much T8fb9FKR
(1819), the Supreme Court’s most famous case interpreting the Necessary and Proper Clause, the Court sided with Hamilton, giving Congress very broad authority to determine what is “necessary” for implementing federal powers. Subsequent cases have been at least as generous to Congress, finding necessity whenever one can imagine a “rational basis” for connecting implementing means to legislative ends. Indeed, no congressional law has ever been held unconstitutional by the Supreme Court on the stated ground that it was not “necessary” to implement a federal power.

Until quite recently, the word “proper” played no serious role in constitutional debates about the meaning of the clause. Indeed, a number of Founding-era figures, including such luminaries as Patrick Henry, James Monroe, and Daniel Webster, thought that the word “proper” was surplusage that added nothing to the word “necessary.” In 1997, however, following some academic commentary that sought to give substance to the requirement of propriety, the Supreme Court held in Israel Romper in Blue Tiare Hawaii Recommend Discount Pay With Visa Sale Online Find Great Cheap Price Outlet For Nice yODYU
that a federal law compelling state executive officials to implement federal gun registration requirements was not “proper” because it did not respect the federal/state boundaries that were part of the Constitution’s background or structure. Some later cases extended that holding to other matters involving federal/state relations. In (2012), a constitutional challenge to “Obamacare,” the federal health care law, the Court sharply divided over whether a law could ever fail to be “proper” if it did not involve direct federal regulation of state governments or state officials. The subject is likely to be a point of contention in the future.

There was also little action until recently regarding what it means for a law to be “for carrying into Execution” another federal power. For a long time, the standard assumption has been that laws can carry federal powers into execution by making other laws grounded in those powers more effective. For example, the Court assumed in (1920) that Congress could use the Necessary and Proper Clause to “carry[] into Execution” the treaty power by implementing and extending the substantive terms of a treaty. In recent years, however, three Justices have followed the lead of certain legal scholars by arguing that carrying the treaty power into execution means providing funds for ambassadors, pens and ink, and travel to foreign nations—in other words, it means making it possible to negotiate, draft, and ratify a treaty rather than to make the treaty more effective once it is negotiated, drafted, and ratified. Again, this subject is likely to be a point of contention in the future.

All of the foregoing, however, assumes that the right way to interpret the Necessary and Proper Clause is to pick apart its individual words and give each key term an independent meaning. That is not the only way to interpret the clause. Instead, one might look at the clause as a single, undifferentiated provision and try to discern the range of laws that the Clause, viewed holistically and purposively, tries to authorize.

One such vision (reflected in one of our separate statements) sees the Clause as a codification of principles of agency law that allow agents to exercise certain defined powers that are “incidental” to the main objects of the documents that empower the agents. Another such vision (reflected in the other of our separate statements) views the Clause as carrying forward ideas from a resolution adopted by the Constitutional Convention that would allow Congress to legislate “in all cases for the general interests of the Union . . . and in those to which the states are separately incompetent.”

If the Necessary and Proper Clause has a relatively broad scope, as the second vision and two centuries of case law has largely maintained, it provides constitutional authorization for much of the existing federal machinery. If it has a narrower scope, as the first vision and a small but vocal group of Justices and scholars maintains, a great many federal laws that have been taken for granted for a long time might be called into question. The correct interpretation of the Necessary and Proper Clause might – just might – be the single most important question of American constitutional law.

Gary Lawson

In this chapter, we introduce advanced commands to modify the way Coq parses and prints objects, i.e. the translations between the concrete and internal representations of terms and commands.

The main commands to provide custom symbolic notations for terms are Notation and Infix . They are described in section Lowest Price Theory Suede Collarless Jacket Browse Sz0FC
. There is also a variant of Notation which does not modify the parser. This provides with a form of abbreviation and it is described in Section Abbreviations . It is sometimes expected that the same symbolic notation has different meanings in different contexts. To achieve this form of overloading, Coq offers a notion of interpretation scope. This is described in Section Boyfriend Slub Cottonjersey Tshirt White ATM Anthony Thomas Melillo Cheap For Cheap hHYKn

The main command to provide custom notations for tactics is Tactic Notation . It is described in Section Fringed crêpe and satin dress Diane Von Fürstenberg Free Shipping Huge Surprise Outlet Store Cheap Online DLpaCG

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A notation is a symbolic expression denoting some term or term pattern.

A typical notation is the use of the infix symbol /\ to denote the logical conjunction (and). Such a notation is declared by

The expression ( and A B ) is the abbreviated term and the string "A /\ B" (called a notation ) tells how it is symbolically written.

A notation is always surrounded by double quotes (except when the abbreviation has the form of an ordinary applicative expression; see Abbreviations ). The notation is composed of tokens separated by spaces. Identifiers in the string (such as A and B ) are the parameters of the notation. They must occur at least once each in the denoted term. The other elements of the string (such as /\ ) are the symbols .

An identifier can be used as a symbol but it must be surrounded by simple quotes to avoid the confusion with a parameter. Similarly, every symbol of at least 3 characters and starting with a simple quote must be quoted (then it starts by two single quotes). Here is an example.

A notation binds a syntactic expression to a term. Unless the parser and pretty-printer of Coq already know how to deal with the syntactic expression (see 12.1.7), explicit precedences and associativity rules have to be given.


The right-hand side of a notation is interpreted at the time the notation is given. In particular, disambiguation of constants, implicit arguments (see Section pussybow blouse Yellow amp; Orange N°21 Clearance Eastbay Sale Prices Clearance Get Authentic XVEbs45Ej
), coercions (see Section Coercions ), etc. are resolved at the time of the declaration of the notation.

Mixing different symbolic notations in the same text may cause serious parsing ambiguity. To deal with the ambiguity of notations, Coq uses precedence levels ranging from 0 to 100 (plus one extra level numbered 200) and associativity rules.

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